Understanding the indicators



HANCI-Global

HANCI-Global compares and ranks the performance of 45 developing countries based on 22 indicators of political commitment. The indicators are split between indicators of commitment to hunger reduction (10 indicators) and indicators relating to commitment to addressing undernutrition (12 indicators). By separately analysing nutrition commitment and hunger reduction commitment we identify how governments prioritise action on hunger and/or undernutrition. We also show how diverse political commitment levels relate to levels of hunger and undernutrition. In both sets they are grouped under three themes:

  • Laws (Legal frameworks – for example the level of constitutional protection of the right to food)
  • Policies (government programmes and policies – for example the extent to which nutrition features in national development policies/strategies)
  • Spending (public expenditures – for example the percentage of government budgets spent on agriculture)

This diagram shows the structure of the Index. Click on the themes to view the indicators.

Hunger Reduction Commitment Indicators - Public Spending

  • 2Public spending on health as share of total public spending
    2017
    government expenditure on health as a share of total government expenditure (Percentage)

    Green if >=15
    Yellow if <15 and >=11.25
    Red if <11.25
    Source:
    WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository

    Hunger Reduction Commitment Indicators - Policies

    • 1Access to land (security of tenure)
      2005-2019
      Assesses the existence of an institutional, legal and market framework for secure land tenure and the procedure for land acquisition and accessibility to all.
      The Ratings Scale goes from 6 (high) through 1 (low), as follows:
      6 - Good for an 3 years
      5 - Good
      4 - Moderately Satisfactory
      3 - Moderately Unsatisfactory
      2 - Unsatisfactory
      1 - Unsatisfactory for 3 years

      Green if >=4
      Yellow if between 2.99 AND 4
      Red if <=2.99
      Source:
      The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    • 2Access to agricultural research and extension services
      2004-2019
      This indicator assesses to what extent the agricultural research and extension system is accessible to poor farmers, including women farmers, and is responsive to the needs and priorities of the poor farmers. Coding is done in the same manner as for the ‘security of access to land’ indicator.

      Green if >=4
      Yellow if between 2.99 AND 4
      Red if <=2.99
      Source:
      The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    • 4Functioning of social protection systems
      2018-2020
      10 = Social safety nets are comprehensive.
      7 = Social safety nets are well developed, but do not cover all risks for all strata of the population.
      4 = Social safety nets are rudimentary and cover only few risks for a limited number of beneficiaries.
      1 = Social safety nets do not exist.

      Green if >=7
      Yellow if between 3 AND 6
      Red if <=2
      Source:
      Transformation Index of the Bertelsmann Stiftung (BTI)

      Hunger Reduction Commitment Indicators - Laws

      • 1Level of constitutional protection of the right to food
        2014-2019
        Strong = 3 Explicit all citizens, specific groups or incorporated under living standards AND/OR Ratified international law (automatically assigned equal status as constitutional law)
        Moderate = 2 Implicit as part of a broader right in constitutional law.
        Weak = 1 Directive Principle (not justiceable) OR Likely or confirmed equality of ratified international lay to national legislation

        Green if 3
        Yellow if 2
        Red if 1
      • 2Equality of women’s access to agricultural land
        2015-2019
        Score based on women’s legal rights and de facto rights to own and/or access agricultural land. Value based on the following scale:

        1: Women and men have the same legal rights and secure access to land assets, without legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. Customary, religious and traditional laws or practices do not discriminate against women’s legal rights.
        0.75: Women and men have the same legal rights and secure access to land assets, without legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. However, some customary, religious or traditional practices or laws discriminate against women’s legal right.
        0.5: Women and men have the same legal rights and secure access to land assets. However, this does not apply to all groups of women.
        0.25: Women and men have the same legal rights to own land assets; but not to use, make decisions and/or use land assets as collateral.
        0: Women do not have the same legal rights as men to own land assets

        (note: in HANCI calculation, the scoring used in the original source is reversed for consistency)

        Green if 1
        Yellow if 0.5
        Red if 0
        Source:
        Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) accessed via OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB)
      • 3Equality of women’s economic rights
        2019
        The extent to which women have equal economic rights in law and in practice. 0: there were no economic rights for women in law and systematic discrimination based on sex may have been built into law.
        1: women had some economic rights under law, but these rights were not effectively enforced.
        2: women had some economic rights under law, and the government effectively enforced these rights in practice while still allowing a low level of discrimination against women in economic matters.
        3: all or nearly all of women’s economic rights were guaranteed by law and the government fully and vigorously enforces these laws in practice.

        Green if 3
        Yellow if 1 OR 2
        Red if 0
        Source:
        The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project
      • 4Constitutional right to social security
        1996-2019
        The Constitution clearly references a right to social security (see Annex II of the source document). 0= No; 1=Yes

        Red if 0
        Green if 1
        Source:
        FAO information paper and other sources

        Nutrition Commitment Indicators - Public Spending

          Nutrition Commitment Indicators - Policies

          • 1Vitamin A supplementation coverage for children
            1996-2018
            The percentage of children aged 6-59 months who received 2 high doses of vitamin A supplements within the last year.

            Green if >=90
            Yellow if between 70 AND 90
            Red if <=70
            Source:
            MICS Indicators, UNICEF field offices and WHO, author calculations based on government data
          • 2Government promotes complementary feeding
            2010-2019
            Whether governments promote complementary feeding practices of children aged 6–9 months and continued breastfeeding of children at ages 12–15 and 20–23 months. 0 = no; 1= yes

            Red if 0
            Green if 1
            Source:
            Sun Reports; world breast feeding trends initiative
          • 3Population with access to an improved water source
            2017-2019
            The percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source.

            Green if >=90
            Yellow if between 70 AND 90
            Red if <=70
            Source:
            Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for water supply and Sanitation - WHO/UNICEF
          • 4Population with access to improved sanitation
            2016-2019
            The percentage of population with access to improved sanitation facilities not shared with other households.

            Green if >=90
            Yellow if between 70 AND 90
            Red if <=70
            Source:
            Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for water supply and Sanitation - WHO/UNICEF
          • 5Health care visits for pregnant women
            2007-2019
            Percentage of women aged 15–49 years attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel (doctor, nurse or midwife)

            Green if >=90
            Yellow if between 70 AND 90
            Red if <=70
            Source:
            UNICEF: DHS/MICS
          • 6Nutrition features in national development policy
            2019
            The total count of key search terms in a selected policy document divided by the number of pages in the document. Search terms: nutritio*.*; undernutrition/under-nutrition; malnutrition/mal-nutrition nutrient; diet*.*; stunt*.*; wasting/wasted; short-for-age; short for age; height-for-age; height for age; weight-for-age; weight for age; weight for height; weight-for-height; Underweight; under-weight; Low birth weight; Thinness; Micro-nutrient; micronutrient; 1000 days; one thousand days; Breastfeed*.*; Behavior change; behaviour change; Iron deficiency anaemi/anemi; Zinc; Deworm; de-worm; Vitamin A; Supplementary feed; complementary feed.

            Green if rank is >=31
            Yellow if rank is 16 to 30
            Red if rank is <=15
            Source:
            web-based searches.
          • 7National Nutrition Policy/Strategy
            2019
            Whether a national nutrition policy, plan or strategy exists. 1: Yes 0:No

            Red if 0
            Green if 1
            Source:
            EIU Global Food Security Index
          • 8Multisector and multistakeholder policy coordination
            2019
            Whether a multisectoral and multistakeholder coordination mechanism exists: 0 = no; 1 = yes

            Red if 0
            Green if 1
            Source:
            SUN fiches/Country docs and unpublished SUN country documents
          • 10National nutrition survey in last 3 years
            2005-2020
            Has there been a Demographic and Health Survey / Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey /comparable national nutrition survey in the past three years? 1: Yes if the survey was dated 2013 or thereafter, or currently underway. 0: No new survey undertaken after 2013.

            Red if 0
            Green if 1

            Nutrition Commitment Indicators - Laws

            • 1Enshrine ICBMS in domestic law
              2019
              The extent to which the International Code for Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is enshrined in law.
              4 = ICBMS is fully in law.
              3 = Many provisions of ICBMS are in law.
              2 = Few provisions are in law.
              1 = No legal measures.

              Green if 4
              Yellow if 2 or 3
              Red if 1
              Source:
              ‘Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: National Implementation of the International Code, Status Report 2018.’

              We include indicators that allow the index to assess ‘curative’ action (efforts that seek to address immediate needs) as well as ‘preventive’ action (efforts to avert hunger and undernutrition, to reduce food insecurity and to prevent people from becoming malnourished). Consequently, some of our proxy indicators measure interventions that are not primarily instituted to combat hunger or undernutrition (e.g. civil registration of births or investments in public health). Nevertheless, governments recognise that these efforts do contribute to hunger reduction and improved nutrition statuses in the short, medium and long term, and are therefore included in the index.

              Donor Country Index

              The donor country indicators looks at 23 OECD member countries and are compared based on 14 indicators which are split between indicators of commitment to hunger reduction (9 indicators) and indicators relating to commitment to addressing undernutrition (5 indicators). These are grouped under 2 themes:

              • Policies, programmes and legal
              • Public expenditures

              You can read more about these on the Donor Index pages