Key data for Ethiopia

NCI36th HRCI23rd HANCI32nd
HANCI compares 45 countries for their performance on 22 indicators of political commitment to reduce hunger and undernutrition. All the countries compared in the index have high rates of hunger and undernutrition. The comparative approach of the index means that country scores are calculated in relation to the political commitment of the other countries in the index.
Existing rates of: Stunting: 38.4% Wasting: 9.9% Proportion of population underweight: 9.9% Source: Government of Ethiopia (DHS, 2016)

Strong Performance

  • Spending on agriculture (16.8% of public spending in 2016) meets government commitments set out in the African Union’s Maputo Declaration (10% of public spending).
  • The Government of Ethiopia has ensured tenure security for rural populations. Land titling is common and land markets function well. Policy promotes equitable access to common property resources.
  • The Government encourages varied agricultural research and extension services, and local farmer organisations are involved in setting policy priorities. The extension system is effective and properly reaches out to poor farmers. Government policies, strategies and mechanisms seek to ensure gender equity in access to extension services.
  • Ethiopia instituted a separate budget line for nutrition, enabling transparency and accountability for spending.
  • The National Nutrition Policy/Strategy identifies time bound nutrition targets and a multisectoral and multistakeholder policy coordination mechanism has been set up.
  • Policymakers in Ethiopia benefit from regular nutrition surveys that are statistically representative at national level. The last survey was published in 2016.
  • The Government of Ethiopia promotes complementary feeding practices.
  • In Ethiopia, constitutional protection of the right to social security is strong.

Areas for improvement

  • Ethiopia’s spending in its health sector (6% of public spending in 2015) does not fully meet (15%) commitments set out in the Abuja Declaration.
  • In Ethiopia, the law does not give women economic rights equal to men. Men and women have equal legal access to agricultural land, but this is not effectively enforced and discriminatory practices against women continue, increasing their vulnerability to hunger and undernutrition.
  • Relative to other HANCI countries, Ethiopia’s medium/long term national development policy (Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II)) places weak importance to nutrition.
  • The Government of Ethiopia has not enshrined the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes into domestic law.
  • Weak access to an improved source of drinking water (61.6% in 2016) and an improved sanitation facility (6.7% in 2016) prevents positive outcomes for hunger and nutrition in Ethiopia.
  • In Ethiopia only 62% of women aged 15-49 were visited at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel in 2016.
  • Social safety nets in Ethiopia are basic and only cover few risks for a limited number of beneficiaries.
  • Civil registration rates are weak (2.7% in 2016) and potentially hold back children’s access to critical public services such as health and education.

Hunger Reduction Commitment Index (HRCI)

Public Spending Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Public spending on agriculture as share of total public spending
?
16.8%20162nd
Public spending on health as share of total public spending
?
6%201524th
Policies Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Access to land (security of tenure)
?
Strong2016Joint 4th
Access to agricultural research and extension services
?
Strong2013Joint 15th
Civil registration system — coverage of live births
?
2.7%201645th
Functioning of social protection systems
?
Weak2016Joint 22nd
Laws Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Level of constitutional protection of the right to food
?
Moderate2016Joint 10th
Equality of women’s access to agricultural land
?
In Law, not in Practice2014Joint 4th
Equality of women’s economic rights
?
Not in Law2014Joint 30th
Constitutional right to social security
?
Yes2006Joint 1st

Nutrition Commitment Index (NCI)

Public Spending Score Year NCI rank of 45
Separate budget for nutrition
?
Yes2016Joint 1st
Policies Score Year NCI rank of 45
Vitamin A supplementation coverage for children
?
74%201523rd
Government promotes complementary feeding
?
Yes2010Joint 1st
Population with access to an improved water source
?
61.6%201639th
Population with access to improved sanitation
?
6.7%201645th
Health care visits for pregnant women
?
62%201641st
Nutrition features in national development policy
?
Weak2015-201940th
National Nutrition Policy/Strategy
?
Yes2017Joint 1st
Multisector and multistakeholder policy coordination
?
Yes2017Joint 1st
Time bound nutrition targets
?
Yes2017Joint 1st
National nutrition survey in last 3 years
?
Yes2016Joint 1st
Laws Score Year NCI rank of 45
Enshrine ICBMS in domestic law
?
Not Enshrined in Law2016Joint 38th