Key data for China

NCI41st HRCI2nd HANCI27th
HANCI compares 45 developing countries for their performance on 22 indicators of political commitment to reduce hunger and undernutrition. All the countries compared in the index have high rates of hunger and undernutrition. The comparative approach of the index means that country scores are calculated in relation to the political commitment of the other countries in the index.
Existing rates of: Stunting: 9.40% Wasting: 2.3% Proportion of population underweight: 3.40% Source: Gov. of China (Nutritional Status of Children, 2010)

Strong Performance

  • Government investment in the health sector is comparatively high at 12.5% of total public spending in 2012.
  • Government of China has ensured tenure security for rural populations. Land titling is common and land markets function well. Policy promotes equitable access to common property resources.
  • The Government encourages varied agricultural research and extension services, and local farmer organisations are involved in setting policy priorities. The extension system is effective and properly reaches out to poor farmers. Government policies, strategies and mechanisms seek to ensure gender equity in access to extension services.
  • China has devised a National Nutrition Policy/Strategy.
  • The Government has enshrined aspects of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes into domestic law.
  • The Government of China promotes complementary feeding practices.
  • 91.9% of the population of China in 2012 has access to an improved drinking water source.
  • In China 95% of women aged 15-49 were visited at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel in 2012.
  • In China, constitutional protection of the right to social security is strong.

Areas for improvement

  • In China, the law gives women and men equal economic rights and equal legal access to agricultural land. However, these laws are not effectively enforced and discriminatory practices against women continue, increasing their vulnerability to hunger and undernutrition.
  • Relative to other HANCI countries, China's medium/long term national development policy (12th Five Year Plan) places weak importance to nutrition.
  • China does not have a separate budget line for nutrition; this prevents transparency and accountability for spending.
  • Even though China has developed a National Nutrition Policy/Strategy and clear time-bound nutrition targets, a multisectoral and multistakeholder policy coordination mechanism is still lacking.
  • Policymakers in China do not benefit from regular nutrition surveys that are statistically representative at national level. The last survey was published in 2010.
  • The Government of China has only achieved two high doses of vitamin A supplementation for 29% of children in 2011.
  • Weak access to improved sanitation facilities (65.3% in 2012) obstructs better hunger and nutrition outcomes.
  • In China, constitutional protection of the right to food is weak.

Hunger Reduction Commitment Index (HRCI)

Public Spending Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Public spending on agriculture as share of total public spending
?
8.8%20118th
Public spending on health as share of total public spending
?
12.5%201213th
Policies Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Access to land (security of tenure)
?
Strong20139th
Access to agricultural research and extension services
?
Strong201312th
Civil registration system — coverage of live births
?
92.8%20114th
Functioning of social protection systems
?
Moderate20146th
Laws Score Year HRCI rank of 45
Level of constitutional protection of the right to food
?
Weak201120th
Equality of women’s access to agricultural land
?
In Law, not in Practice20144th
Equality of women’s economic rights
?
Not Enforced20115th
Constitutional right to social security
?
Yes20061st

Nutrition Commitment Index (NCI)

Public Spending Score Year NCI rank of 45
Separate budget for nutrition
?
Sectoral only201228th
Policies Score Year NCI rank of 45
Vitamin A supplementation coverage for children
?
29.0%201140th
Government promotes complementary feeding
?
Yes20121st
Population with access to an improved water source
?
91.9%20126th
Population with access to improved sanitation
?
65.3%20128th
Health care visits for pregnant women
?
95.0%201210th
Nutrition features in national development policy
?
Weak201342nd
National Nutrition Policy/Strategy
?
Yes20141st
Multisector and multistakeholder policy coordination
?
No201239th
Time bound nutrition targets
?
Yes20121st
National nutrition survey in last 3 years
?
No201234th
Laws Score Year NCI rank of 45
Enshrine ICBMS in domestic law
?
Aspects Enshrined201433rd